This is a question that comes up many times and the answer is yes and no. Standard siblings are going to share some of the same DNA. Identical twins are going to have the exact same DNA in their genetic markers, but fraternal twins are just like standard siblings and will only share parts of the same DNA.
To break this down further, individuals typically have 2 alleles (numbers) in each genetic marker. So, mom has 2 alleles and dad has 2 alleles. Then in each genetic marker, their children will get 1 allele from mom and 1 allele from dad. One sibling will not always get the same allele from mom and/or dad as their brother or sister. Some alleles will match and others will not.
When it comes to twins, identical twins will get all of the exact alleles from their parents. This is because they come from 1 fertilized egg that splits. However, fraternal twins will be just like standard siblings because they come from 2 fertilized eggs. This being said, fraternal twins will match on some alleles, but not on all.
Now let’s discuss 2 males that come from the same father. Males have a unique stand of DNA called Y-Chromosomes. The Y-Chromosomes are passed down the male lineage and are an exact match. The 2 brothers won’t necessarily match on the standard genetic markers with all of their alleles, but if they truly are from the same father, they will match on the Y chromosomes.
Sibling DNA Test Options
- Full Vs Half Siblings
This test would prove that you either share the same mom and dad with each other or that you only have one of your parents in common. Typically, most brothers and sisters are trying to confirm that they have the same father, but in cases like adoption, egg/sperm donation/surrogacy, or even hospital baby switches, some may need to confirm that they also share the same mother as well.
- Half Siblings vs unrelated
In cases where people already know they have different mothers and just want to confirm their father, this would be considered a Half vs Unrelated siblingship test.
With either sibling testing option it may require further family members to be included as well to get conclusive results. Results for Sibling DNA Testing are not always straightforward, if starting with only two people. Say you are a female and just found out that you may have a possible brother out there. You decide to get a test to confirm or deny the sibling relationship. After having a test performed, and you get your sibling DNA test results back, you may still have some questions.
An inconclusive sibling DNA results doesn’t mean that you are not related and it doesn’t mean that you are. It just means that you share more DNA than the average unrelated person, but not enough to give a definitive answer. Remember, each parent doesn’t always give the same alleles to each of their children. This is why we always encourage the mother to test for siblingship DNA testing. Including the mother helps the physician see exactly what DNA each child received from their mother. Then the lab can focus on the DNA that was given to the children from the possible father and get a better idea for conclusive results.
Either way, it is possible to get the DNA answers you are looking for if the father is not available for testing. Again, there is a better chance for conclusive results if two males test against each other, but it is not necessary. Many times, the lab is able to get conclusive results with just a possible brother and sister as well.